Modern Chinese history
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The beginning of modern history

After the opium war,

Before the opium war, the feudal rule of the qing dynasty had been decayed, and there were many crises. And Britain is the most powerful capitalist country in the world. But British goods do not sell well in China because of the country's self-sufficient natural economy



It also has a strong resistance to foreign goods. In order to change this situation, British colonialists sold opium to China in large quantities. The opium trade corroded the heart of the Chinese bureaucracy and destroyed the decay of the citadel of the patriarchal system



It was smuggled into the empire with opium crates from English barges moored at whampoa.

In the first month of the 19th year of daoguang (March 1839), Lin zexu arrived in guang

The first opium war

The first opium war (2)

The state, and seriously expressed the determination to ban smoking: "if the opium is not a day away, this minister is not a day back, oath with this matter from beginning to end, no reason to stop." [1] from 22 April to 13 May (3 June to 25 June),



All the seized opium was destroyed in public at humen beach. The elimination of smoking in humen has defeated the arrogance of foreign aggressors, inspired the morale of the Chinese people, and demonstrated to the whole world the determination of the Chinese people to safeguard national dignity and resist foreign aggression.

After humen, Britain began to wage war of aggression against China. The opium war lasted more than two years from the beginning of daoguang in May of the 20th year (June 1840) to the end of July of the 22nd year (August 1842). 1842



In August, the British invaders forced the qing government to sign the first unequal treaty in modern China, the Sino-British treaty of Nanking. The next year, Britain forced the qing government to sign an annex to the treaty of Nanking. The opium war had just ended



Under the threat of force, the United States and France forced the qing government to sign the unequal treaty of wangsha and the treaty of whampoa with China respectively, which expanded the rights and interests of aggression.

The signing of the treaty of nanjing undermined China's territorial integrity, jurisdiction, customs and other sovereignty, and set a precedent for the legalization of plunder and slavery in the form of treaties



. From then on, the contradiction between the Chinese nation and imperialism, and between the masses and feudalism became the principal contradiction in Chinese society, and anti-imperialism and anti-feudalism became the dual historical task of the struggle of the modern Chinese people. Chinese history has entered the old democracy



The period of the revolution. [2]

The taiping rebellion

Hong xiuquan

Hong xiuquan

In the opium war, the qing government spent a large amount of military expenditure, which greatly increased the burden on the people. After that, the great taiping rebellion led by hong xiuquan broke out.

In 1853, the taiping army occupied nanjing, determined the capital here and renamed it tianjing, and the taiping heavenly kingdom issued the tian mu system, and sent two armies to the north and the west. Later, the xiang army made a mad counter-attack, and the taiping army lost again and again



. In 1856, shi dakai commanded the western army to defeat the xiang army, and the taiping heavenly kingdom entered its military heyday. [11] when the taiping heavenly kingdom won a great military victory, there was a sharp internal turmoil among the leaders.

In 1859, hong rengan compiled the new chapter of mentor, which mainly included: developing industry and commerce and rewarding scientific and technological inventions; Open new schools; Learn from the west, rule by law, etc. It is the first time advanced Chinese put forward to develop capital in China



The idea of the doctrine, but because of the situation did not realize.

In June 1864, hong xiuquan died of illness. In July, the xiang army rushed into the city of tianjing, and tianjing fell. The vigorous taiping heavenly kingdom movement failed due to the joint execution of Chinese and foreign reactionary forces.

The taiping heavenly kingdom persisted in fighting for 14 years and developed its power to 18 provinces. It was a great anti-feudal and anti-aggression peasant movement in modern Chinese history. It established the regime and promulgated the tian mu system, which dealt a heavy blow to the Chinese and foreign reactionaries



Power is the culmination of thousands of years of peasant warfare in China. [3]

The formation of a semi-feudal and semi-colonial society

The second opium war

In 1856, Britain and France launched the second opium war on the pretext of renewing the treaty. In 1858, Russia, the United States, Britain and France forced the qing government to sign the treaty of tianjin. Late in October 1860, the British and French forces again



The qing government signed the Beijing treaty between China, Britain and France.

At the beginning of the 10th year of xianfeng (1860), Britain and France appointed Elgin and glover as plenitiers respectively, and led their fleets to China to launch another war of aggression. In June (July), British and French troops arrived outside the mouth of dagu. Emperor xianfeng led a group of officials



He fled to rehe (now chengde city, hebei province) and ordered his brother prince yi to stay in Beijing and take charge of the peace talks. On August 22 (October 6), British and French troops seized the old Summer Palace, which had been operated by the qing court for more than 150 years. Was washed by the anglo-french army



After the robbery, it was set on fire. The fire burned for three days and the old Summer Palace, known as the "garden of ten thousand gardens", was reduced to piles of rubble. C.g. Gordon, the British colonialist who took part in the looting, admitted: "we were



In the most barbaric way, it destroyed the most precious treasure in the world. [9]"

After the second opium war and the signing of the unequal treaties of tianjin and Beijing, the Chinese territory was further looted, and the foreign invaders further grabbed a large number of rights and interests from China, thus intensifying their political campaign against China



Control and economic and cultural aggression. The capitalist countries directly exerted pressure on the qing court through their ministers and manipulated and controlled China's internal affairs and diplomacy. The expansion of a large number of commercial ports extended from the southeast coast to seven coastal provinces and the Yangtze river



Swim, make foreign capitalism invades more deeply again. The foreign invaders also managed the Chinese customs directly and strengthened their control over the qing court financially, thus facilitating the expansion of their political influence. China's loss of sovereignty has deepened



The extent of China's semi-colonization.

Tsarist Russia occupied Chinese territory

Russia has long had territorial ambitions for China. After the opium war, it intensified its armed invasion of China's heilongjiang valley. On April 16, 2008 (May 28, 1858), half a month before the signing of the sino-russian treaty of tianjin,



The unequal aigun treaty was forced upon the amur general yi shan by force. According to this treaty, Russia seceded south of the outer khingan mountains, black

The territorial situation ceded by the aigun treaty

The territorial situation ceded by the aigun treaty

More than 600,000 square kilometers of Chinese territory north of longjiang. On October 2, 1860 (November 14, 1860), Russian minister ignatiev forced yi to sign the unequal sino-russian treaty of Beijing. And the ussuri river



Some 400,000 square kilometers of territory was ceded to the east, creating a basis for ceding China's western territory.

In may of the 11th year of xianfeng (June 1861), China and Russia signed the eastern boundary treaty of the prospecting division. In fact, this survey only demarcated the land boundary to the south of the xingkai lake, and did not demarcate the water boundary of the ussuri river and heilongjiang river. From the word yuan



From may, 1862 (June, 1862), Ming yi, minister of the qing court's demarcation, and Russian plenipotentiary representatives babkov and zakharov, etc., began negotiations on the demarcation of the northwest frontier at tarbahatai (now tachengcheng, xinjiang province). Adoption of the sino-russian treaty of Beijing



Russia dictated the direction of the western section of the sino-russian border, designating the permanent residence of kalen, located near the towns within the territory of the qing dynasty, as the demarcation mark, and the inner lakes of China, zhai sambo and temur turnur (lake issek in present-day kyrgyzstan) as the boundary



Lake. Then Russia invaded the region, creating a fait accompli. It was not until September of the third year of tongzhi (October 1864) that negotiations between China and Russia resumed in tajikistan. The qing court succumbed to the threat of force from Russia, which forced mingyi to back down and accept Russia



The discussion list. On the seventh day of September (7th October), mingyi and babkov signed the china-russia northwest boundary treaty of exploration and demarcation, which delimits the western section of china-russia boundary from the shabindabaha pass to the border of haohan.

In the second opium war, Russia occupied more than 1.44 million square kilometers of Chinese territory through the unequal aigun treaty, the treaty of Beijing, and a series of demarcation treaties. [4]

Political changes in the qing dynasty

Since the treaty of tianjin stipulated that foreign ministers should be stationed in Beijing, it was inevitable for the qing court to establish formal diplomatic relations with the western capitalist powers. In December of the 10th year of xianfeng (January 1861), the qing government established the yamen of the prime minister for state affairs.



The yamen of the premier was in charge of foreign affairs, trade, customs duties, construction of railways, mining and manufacture of guns, guns and ammunition.

Xianfeng 11 years in July (August 1861), xianfeng emperor died in rehe disease, which

Empress dowager

Empress dowager

Zaichun succeeded to the throne. < / p > < p > chun young, the will appointed yi pro wang zaiyuan, zheng pro wang duan hua, the ministry of household shang shu shun and other eight people as "zen-xiang government affairs wang minister", the total take the government. Zai chun's birth mother nala, was respected as empress dowager cixi. In an attempt to



A person who has attained supreme ruling power. But her ambition is run agaki et al. She and the empress dowager cian plot to eradicate the wall and other eight ministers, and foreign aggressors supported by the game of collusion, draw up the victory of military power and so on



People. [5]

Cixi, the empress dowager cian to jia zhen et al., on the grounds, issued four messages in succession, the removal of zen-xiang government affairs wang minister, sent yi yuan and other meetings of the empress dowager listen to government affairs, will carry the wall, duan hua, su shun, etc. At the beginning of October



One day (November 3), and one after another issued an order, prince gong yi to attend the meeting of the political king, in the military aircraft office walk, zong ren fu zong order, grand minister kuiliang, the ministry of housing shang shu shen zhaolin, ministry of housing right assistant minister treasure jun, ministry of housing left assistant minister wen xiang in the military aircraft



The minister on the walk, hong - fu temple shaoqing cao yuying in the military minister to learn to walk. Subsequently, the empress dowager cixi and other quickly killed the yuan, duan hua, su shun, the rest of the five ministers to be punished, will carry yuan and other people to draft the emperor's year "qixiang



"To" tongzhi ". The empress dowager cixi seized the DE facto supreme sovereignty. This was known as the xiyou coup (xiyounian in the eleventh year of xianfeng), or the qixiang coup and the Beijing coup. [5]

The westernization movement and the sino-french war

After the two opium wars, the qing government finally realized the gap between China and the western advanced countries, and in 1861, it set up the government office of the premier on national affairs. After the second opium war, the westernization movement, mainly



Introduce advanced modern technology from western countries to strengthen ourselves. The westernization movement, with its slogan of "self-strengthening", failed to put China on the road to prosperity, and later became a banner of "seeking wealth" due to financial losses. But it hurts objectively



It stimulates the emergence and development of Chinese capitalism and opens up a road for the modernization of Chinese capitalism. The expansion of foreign economic power also played a certain role in resisting.

At the end of 1883, the French army attacked the troops stationed in Vietnam, and the sino-french war broke out. The qing army made concerted efforts to kill the enemy, defeated the French army, and achieved the great victory of zhennan pass. The brilliant victory of the sino-vietnamese military and civilian war against France forced the French cabinet to fall. However, the qing



The government rushed to sign a treaty with the French representative in tianjin, agreeing to open up trade on the sino-vietnamese border, and to appoint the French to build the railway. From then on, French aggression extended to southwest China. China is "undefeated",



France "won".

The qing army recovered xinjiang

In 1864, there was a civil unrest in xinjiang. In 1867, aguber led his army into urumqi and established the vast and rare state of central Asia. In 1871, Russia launched a brazen invasion of ili. The next year he sent a mission to kashgar, headed by corbas, with agus



The treaty of Russia and kashgar was signed by a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a.

In 1875, zuo zongtang led troops to recover xinjiang. In 1877, the qing army wiped out the agubo regime and recovered all the territory in the north and south of the tianshan mountains of xinjiang except yili. On February 24, 1881, zeng jize and the representative of the Russian side concluded the sino-russian ili



Treaty and articles of association for overland commerce.


Sino-japanese war of 1894-1895

In 1894, the Korean royal family had civil unrest, Japan took the opportunity to send troops, war

The sino-japanese war

The sino-japanese war

Fire from Pyongyang burns across the Chinese border. In order to realize the dream of conquering Korea, invading China and dominating the world, Japan is ready to launch a war of aggression against China.

The sino-japanese war broke out in 1894-1895, the beiyang naval forces and the Japanese navy fighting, the beiyang naval forces hit the Japanese, but was injured. Li hongzhang ordered not to go to sea, sit and defend weihaiwei shandong. The Japanese divided into two sides, one side of the occupation of lushun, dalian, one side of the attack



Weihaiwei, before long, dalian, lushun have fallen. In the liaodong war, the Japanese army carried out a crazy massacre in lushun, history said (lushun massacre), killed more than 18,000 residents, the city only 36 people, it is said to call him



They buried the bodies.

In the end, the entire beiyang naval force was destroyed, and li hongzhang was forced to sign the treaty of shimonoseki with Japan on April 17, 1895. The signing of shimonoseki treaty greatly deepened the semi-colonization of Chinese society. [6]

The boxer rebellion and the xinchou treaty

In the late 19th century, the boxer rebellion broke out. However, due to the corruption of the qing government, the boxer movement failed under the suppression of Chinese and foreign reactionary forces. In 1901, the qing government was forced to join forces with Britain, the United States, Russia, Japan, France, Germany, Italy, Austria, Belgium,



Eleven countries, including the Netherlands and Spain, signed the xin Chou treaty.

The xin Chou treaty has placed a new heavy burden on the Chinese people and seriously undermined China's sovereignty. The qing government completely became a tool for imperialism to rule China. China has fallen into the abyss of semi-colonial and semi-feudal society. China



The reparation silver 450 million liang, cent 39 years pay off, the annual interest 4 percent, the principal and interest a total of 980 million liang, customs duty, customs duty and salt tax as security, is in the modern history of China reparations treaty. The signing of the xin Chou treaty completely destroyed China



A semi-colonial and semi-feudal society. [12]

The democratic revolution and the founding of the republic of China

Under the initiative of sun yat-sen, some revolutionary groups such as the xing zhong hui and the hua xing hui and the guang fu hui were founded in 1905

Yuan shikai

Yuan shikai

Member, in Tokyo, Japan, the formation of China tongmeng hui.

On October 10, 1911, the wuchang uprising broke out. Under the leadership of the revolution, the revolutionary army fought bravely and conquered the city. The revolutionaries changed the name of the country to the republic of China and elected sun yat-sen as the provisional general secretary of the republic of China



System. However, the fruits of the xinhai revolution were stolen by yuan shikai.

In March 1912, yuan shikai became the provisional President of the republic of China in Beijing.

The revolution of 1911 led by sun yat-sen was a great bourgeois democratic revolution in modern Chinese society, overthrowing the feudal autocratic monarchy that had ruled China for more than 2,000 years. This is a big change of Chinese society, a big progress! The revolution



Although it did not change the nature of China's semi-colonial and semi-feudal society, it opened the way for the development of new revolutionary struggles in the future. [7]

The rule of the northern warlords

On May 4, 1919, more than 3,000 students in Beijing demonstrated in front of tiananmen square. The May 4th patriotic movement was a patriotic movement that was thoroughly against imperialism and feudalism



Class began to enter the political arena, showing great power; China's advanced intellectuals played an important role. The May 4th patriotic movement, which took place after the October socialist revolution in Russia, is part of the proletarian world revolution



Cent, to propagandize marxism to had promoted action.

The development of the national revolution

In January 1924, the Chinese kuomintang held its first national congress in guangzhou, implementing the policy of the united republic of Russia and the communist party of China. The kuomintang and the communist party began to cooperate for the first time, which opened the prelude of the national revolution.

Chiang kai-shek

Chiang kai-shek

On July 1, 1925, the national government was established in guangzhou. On July 9, 1926, the nationalist government began the northern expedition. The revolutionary army of the People's Republic of China (revolutionary army of the People's Republic of China) raised troops from guangdong and destroyed wu peifu in changsha, wuhan, nanjing, Shanghai and other places.



Sun chuanfang and other old northern warlords, the national revolution into the climax.

With the successive victories of the northern expedition, the contradictions between the kuomintang and the communist party and between the left and the right in the kuomintang became increasingly acute. On April 12, 1927, Chiang kai-shek launched the "April 12, 1927" counter-revolutionary coup d 'etat, resulting in the first public breakdown of the cooperation between the kuomintang and the communist party



Crack. On July 15 of the same year, in order to massacre the communists and the revolutionary masses, wang ching-wei put forward the slogan of "killing a thousand rather than letting a single person slip through the net" and massacred the communist party members and the revolutionary masses



The same. Since then civil war has replaced unity and dictatorship has replaced democracy. The vigorous national revolution failed.

On the one hand, the defeat of the national revolution was due to the joint support of international imperialism for the kuomintang rightists to mutiny. The other is that the Chinese communist party is still in its infancy



Lack of combat experience. In the later period of the national revolution, the leader Chen duxiu made the mistake of right capitulationism, giving up the leadership of the revolution, so that when the enemy launched a surprise attack, he could not effectively organize the people's resistance.

Ten years of confrontation between the kuomintang and the communist party

On August 1, 1927, zhou enlai, tan pingshan, ye ting, zhu DE, liu bocheng and other Chinese communists led the nanchang uprising



The first shot of the armed resistance against the kuomintang reactionaries was fired, which opened the prelude of the independent armed struggle led by the communist party of China and the creation of the revolutionary army.

On September 9, MAO zedong led the autumn harvest uprising and founded the jinggangshan revolutionary base.

The nanchang uprising

The nanchang uprising

A new situation of armed division of workers and peasants was created.

On September 18, 1931, the 918 incident broke out. The contradictions between Japan and China were further intensified, and the rising status of the Japanese military department, the main war in Japan, led Japan to embark on the road of full-scale invasion of China, which was the full-scale explosion of the Anti-Japanese War



The hair planted the fuse. The Japanese kwantung army occupied three provinces in northeast China and established the puppet regime of manchukuo in northeast China by puyi, the former emperor of the qing dynasty who defected to Japan.

In October 1934, the main force of the central red army began the long march.

In November and April of the following year, the red 25th army in the revolutionary base area of hubei, henan and anhui and the red 4th army in the sichuan-shaanxi revolutionary base area began the long march respectively.

In November 1935, the second and sixth regiments of the red army in the xiang-e western revolutionary base area also left the base and began the long march.

In June 1936, the second and sixth regiments formed the second front army.

In October of the same year, the first, second and fourth front armies of the red army met triumphally in huining, gansu province, ending the long march. Among them, the long march of the first red army lasted one year, and it traveled to eleven provinces, with a distance of about 25,000 li.

The xi 'an incident happened on December 12, 1936, which established the anti-japanese national united front.

Anti-Japanese War

War of Resistance Against Japan refers to a national all-out War Against Japanese aggression in the second world War in the middle of the 20th century. Internationally, it is called the second sino-japanese war



(the Second Sino - Japanese War), the Japanese War of aggression against China, Japanese War of aggressionagainst China). The war of resistance began with the September 18 incident on September 18, 1931, and ended in 1945.



The war lasted fourteen years.

In 1931, after the September 18th incident, the Japanese invading army completely occupied northeast China and established the "manchukuo". Since then, it has created troubles and provoked wars in north China, Shanghai and other places. The nationalist government adopted a policy of compromise to avoid conflict and expansion



Big. On July 7, 1937, the Japanese army provoked the Marco Polo bridge incident near Peiping, and the sino-japanese war broke out in full force. After Japan launched the Pacific war on December 7, 1941, the chongqing nationalist government officially declared war on Japan on December 9. [2-3] in 1945



On August 15, Japan surrendered unconditionally to the Allies.

China was one of the main battlefields of world war ii. The Chinese people's war of resistance against Japanese aggression was an important part of the second world war.

The Chinese people's war of resistance against Japanese aggression was the greatest patriotic war in the history of the Chinese nation



The war of national liberation, the first complete victory against foreign invasion.

War of liberation

From August 1945 to June 1950, the Chinese people's liberation army, under the leadership of the communist party of China and with the support of the broad masses of the people, fought a war to overthrow the kuomintang and liberate the whole of China, during which it wiped out more than 6.25 million kuomintang troops



, destroyed the reactionary regime of the kuomintang at all levels and fundamentally overthrew the rule of imperialism, feudalism and bureaucrat-capitalism in China.

On October 1, 1949, the People's Republic of China was proclaimed.

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